Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

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Chinadragon
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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#11

Post by Chinadragon » Tue Sep 21, 2010 2:31 am

Hi Kruska,

I just checked in and see all this photos and medals you display. Are this original photo? they already more then 100 years old and still look very good. From this time is very hard to find things in China, I never find this things. When I come to Shanghai next week I call you

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Kruska
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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#12

Post by Kruska » Fri Sep 24, 2010 3:24 am

Hello Chinadragon,

sorry just saw your post - oh yes these are all original photos, and I scaned them in since some of them are really starting to deterioate. True European collectables from the Boxertime are more or less impossible to come by in China - even KMT stuff is really difficult to get.

Okay see you then - and I will be waiting for your call

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Kruska
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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#13

Post by Kruska » Sat Oct 16, 2010 12:17 pm

Victory parade at Tsingdao - alongside the 8 powers. - click for enlargement

C10001.jpg
original photo

Winter-manouver in Shandong province

C10003.jpg
original photo

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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#14

Post by Kruska » Sun Aug 26, 2012 4:22 pm

Troops of the Eight nations alliance in 1900.
Eight-Nations 1900.jpg
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Eight-Nations 1900.jpg
Eight-Nations 1900.jpg (239.77 KiB) Viewed 1260 times

Left to right: Britain, United States, Russia, British India, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Japan
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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#15

Post by Kruska » Sun Aug 26, 2012 4:29 pm

The Beginning
However the Eight-Nation Alliance didn’t have a walk in the park at all – especially whilst awaiting the German and Allied Expeditionary corps – they faced several severe losses and drawbacks despite after war propaganda such as the Germans to the front
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SeymourTianjin.jpg
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SeymourTianjin.jpg
SeymourTianjin.jpg (406.7 KiB) Viewed 1260 times

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer_Rebellion
Despite the attention given towards relieving the legislation quarters in Beijing by the Western Powers and securing vital cities such as Tientsin, Tsingtao, Taiyuan, Nanjing, Wuhan, Shanghai etc. the actual large scale military showdowns were forwarded by the Russians and the Japanese far away in Manchuria. Setting and securing vast territories that kept their boundaries till 1904 - The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) In June 1900 the Czar's government used the pretext of Boxer activity to move some 200,000 troops into the area
Russian Manchuria.png
Russian Manchuria.png (439.7 KiB) Viewed 1260 times
Russian Manchuria.png
Russian Manchuria.png (439.7 KiB) Viewed 1260 times

One of the reasons if not the main reason for the Chinese Boxer rebels and the Qing armies to fail against the foreigners was their inability to unite – instead it was a common practice that whilst fighting against the Eight-Nation Forces that they diverted their forces and fought and battled amongst each other – thus providing the Eight-Nation Forces with much needed relief.
The international force with British Lieutenant-General Alfred Gaselee acting as the commanding officer of the Eight-Nation Alliance, eventually numbered 55,000, with the main contingent being composed of Japanese soldiers: Japanese (20,840), Russian (13,150), British (12,020), French (3,520), U.S.(3,420), German (900), Italian (2080), Austro-Hungarian (75) and anti-Boxer Chinese troops. They faced a Boxer and Qing force of approximately 30,000 Imperial troops and around 30,000 to 50,000 Boxers.
The international force finally captured Tianjin on 14 July under the command of the Japanese Colonel Kuriya, after one day of fighting.
The march from Tianjin to Beijing of about 120 km consisted of about 20,000 allied troops. On August 4, there were approximately 70,000 Imperial troops with anywhere from 50,000 to 100,000 Boxers along the way. The allies only encountered minor resistance, fighting battles at Beicang and Yangcun. At Yangcun, the 14th Infantry Regiment of the U.S. and British troops led the assault. The weather was a major obstacle, extremely humid with temperatures sometimes reaching 110 °F (43 °C).
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Photos of the Eight-Nation advance towards Beijing - battle at Yangcun

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Andy
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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#16

Post by Kruska » Sun Aug 26, 2012 4:35 pm

Aftermath
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer_Rebellion
Beijing, Tianjin, and other cities in northern China were occupied for more than one year by the international expeditionary force under the command of German General Alfred Graf von Waldersee. The German force arrived too late to take part in the fighting, but undertook several punitive expeditions to the countryside against the Boxers. Although atrocities by foreign troops were common, German troops in particular were criticized for their enthusiasm in carrying out Kaiser Wilhelm II’s words.
The Germans were not the only offenders. On behalf of Chinese Catholics, French troops ravaged the countryside around Beijing to collect indemnities—and on one occasion arresting American missionary William Scott Ament who beat them to the punch in gathering wealth from some villages. Nor were the soldiers of other nationalities any better behaved. "The Russian soldiers are ravishing the women and committing horrible atrocities" in the sector of Beijing they occupied. The Japanese were noted for their skill in beheading Boxers or people suspected of being Boxers. General Chaffee commented, "It is safe to say that where one real Boxer has been killed... fifty harmless coolies or laborers on the farms, including not a few women and children, have been slain.
The intermediate aftermath of the siege in Beijing was what one newspaper called a "carnival of loot," and others called "an orgy of looting" by soldiers, civilians, and missionaries. These characterizations called to mind the sacking of the Summer Palace in 1860. All of the nationalities in the expeditionary force engaged in looting, but each nationality accused the others of being the worst looters. An American diplomat, Herbert G. Squiers, filled several railroad cars with loot. The British Legation held loot auctions every afternoon and proclaimed, "looting on the part of British troops was carried out in the most orderly manner." The Catholic Beitang or North Cathedral was a "salesroom for stolen property." The American commander General Adna Chaffee banned looting by American soldiers, but the ban was ineffectual.
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Photo of the deserted Forbidden City
The missionaries were the most condemned. Mark Twain reflected American outrage against looting and imperialism in his essay, "To the Person Sitting in Darkness". American Board Missionary Ament was his target. To provide restitution to missionaries and Chinese Christian families whose property had been destroyed, Ament guided American troops through villages to punish Boxers and confiscate their property. When Mark Twain read of this expedition, he wrote a scathing attack on the "Reverend bandits of the American Board." Ament was one of the most respected and courageous missionaries in China and the controversy between him and Mark Twain was front page news during much of 1901. Ament's counterpart on the distaff side was doughty British missionary Georgina Smith who presided over a neighborhood in Beijing as judge and jury.
One witness recalled that "[t]he conduct of the Russian soldiers is atrocious, the French are not much better, and the Japanese are looting and burning without mercy" It was reported that Japanese troops were astonished by other Alliance troops raping civilians; Japanese officers had brought along Japanese prostitutes to stop their troops from raping Chinese civilians. Thousands of Chinese women committed suicide; The Daily Telegraph journalist E. J. Dillon stated it was to avoid rape by Alliance forces, and he witnessed the mutilated corpses of Chinese women who were raped and killed by the Alliance troops. The French commander dismissed the rapes, attributing them to "gallantry of the French soldier".
A foreign journalist, George Lynch, said "there are things that I must not write, and that may not be printed in England, which would seem to show that this Western civilization of ours is merely a veneer over savagery."
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Andy
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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#17

Post by Kruska » Sun Aug 26, 2012 4:38 pm

Reparations
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer_Rebellion
China was fined war reparations of 450,000,000 taels of fine silver (1 tael = 1.2 troy ounces) for the loss that it caused. The reparation was to be paid within 39 years, and would be 982,238,150 taels with interest (4 percent per year) included. To help meet the payment it was agreed to increase the existing tariff from an actual 3.18 percent to 5 percent, and to tax hitherto duty-free merchandise. The sum of reparation was estimated by the Chinese population (roughly 450 million in 1900), to let each Chinese pay one tael.
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China paid 668,661,220 taels of silver from 1901 to 1939, equivalent in 2010 to ~US$61 billion on a purchasing power parity basis.
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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#18

Post by Kruska » Wed Aug 29, 2012 10:00 pm

The 3rd Seebataillon
3rd Seabattalion (Tsingtau).jpg
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3rd Seabattalion (Tsingtau).jpg
3rd Seabattalion (Tsingtau).jpg (26.44 KiB) Viewed 1218 times

The German Navy maintained three battalions of marines to protect its foreign naval bases. During the Boxer Rebellion, the 3rd Seebataillon left its station at Tsingtao and fought with the Allies against the Chinese. In China at the start of hostilities were the 3rd Seebataillon (1,126 men), and one battery of Marine Horse Artillery (111 men).
Marine Horse Artillery.jpg
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Marine Horse Artillery.jpg
Marine Horse Artillery.jpg (53.73 KiB) Viewed 1218 times

Full dress uniform for these troops consisted of a medium blue jacket and trousers. The jacket had white Swedish cuffs and white shoulder-straps. The collar and cuff slashes were yellow. The trouser seam stripes were also white. A Jäger shako bore a gilt eagle badge and black-white-red national cockade. A more comfortable and practical khaki uniform was worn in summer. This uniform lacked all distinctions except for white shoulder-straps. On the straps in yellow were the Imperial crown over crossed anchors above the Roman numeral of the unit—in this case ‘III’.
3rd Seebataillon.jpg
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3rd Seebataillon.jpg
3rd Seebataillon.jpg (200.8 KiB) Viewed 1218 times

The shako was replaced with a white cork helmet with a white metal badge consisting of a crowned Imperial eagle on an anchor. Below the badge was a small national cockade. A khaki cover for the helmet was issued but not always worn. Arms consisted of a 7.92mm. M98 rifle and bayonet.

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Andy
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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#19

Post by Kruska » Thu Aug 30, 2012 7:01 pm

The 3rd Seebataillion
III. Seebataillion 1.jpg
III. Seebataillion 1.jpg (67.12 KiB) Viewed 1212 times
III. Seebataillion 1.jpg
III. Seebataillion 1.jpg (67.12 KiB) Viewed 1212 times

III. Seebatallion.jpg
III. Seebatallion.jpg (333.83 KiB) Viewed 1212 times
III. Seebatallion.jpg
III. Seebatallion.jpg (333.83 KiB) Viewed 1212 times

Some American reenactors :thumpsup:
III. Seebatallion 3.jpg
III. Seebatallion 3.jpg (404.82 KiB) Viewed 1212 times
III. Seebatallion 3.jpg
III. Seebatallion 3.jpg (404.82 KiB) Viewed 1212 times

III. Seebatallion 2.jpg
III. Seebatallion 2.jpg (299.86 KiB) Viewed 1212 times
III. Seebatallion 2.jpg
III. Seebatallion 2.jpg (299.86 KiB) Viewed 1212 times

III. Seebataillon.jpg
III. Seebataillon.jpg (107.43 KiB) Viewed 1212 times
III. Seebataillon.jpg
III. Seebataillon.jpg (107.43 KiB) Viewed 1212 times

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Andy
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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#20

Post by Kruska » Tue Sep 04, 2012 4:54 pm

A very rare photo of a German officer and member of the East Asian Brigade who had served prior to the Boxer rebellion in Chinese services in the Imperial Chinese Army
China.jpg
China.jpg (380.29 KiB) Viewed 1188 times
China.jpg
China.jpg (380.29 KiB) Viewed 1188 times

As can be seen on the close up - this officer wears the Order of the Chinese Double Dragon
China 1.jpg
China 1.jpg (213.33 KiB) Viewed 1188 times
China 1.jpg
China 1.jpg (213.33 KiB) Viewed 1188 times

The helmet is felt but the visor is hardened. There is no doubt that the medal is the double Dragon order from China. However as that came in so many grades I can't say for certain which one it could be since it also doesn't show up in colour in regards to the stone/jewel which is embedded in the centre.

Due to the ranking of this officer I would suggest that it is the: Imperial Order of the Double Dragon, (3rd Class), 1st Grade, 3rd type
Double Dragon,Commander (3rd Class), 2nd type, 1st Grade.jpg
Double Dragon,Commander (3rd Class), 2nd type, 1st Grade.jpg (58.03 KiB) Viewed 1188 times
Double Dragon,Commander (3rd Class), 2nd type, 1st Grade.jpg
Double Dragon,Commander (3rd Class), 2nd type, 1st Grade.jpg (58.03 KiB) Viewed 1188 times

Imperial Order of the Double Dragon - Type III, Third class, second grade.jpg
Imperial Order of the Double Dragon - Type III, Third class, second grade.jpg (26.45 KiB) Viewed 1188 times
Imperial Order of the Double Dragon - Type III, Third class, second grade.jpg
Imperial Order of the Double Dragon - Type III, Third class, second grade.jpg (26.45 KiB) Viewed 1188 times

http://chinesemedal.wordpress.com/

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Andy
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