Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

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Kruska
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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#21

Post by Kruska » Sat Sep 29, 2012 3:26 pm

Alfred Ludwig Heinrich Karl Graf von Waldersee the first Allied Supreme Commander of modern times
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_von_Waldersee
Two thousand European and Chinese Christians were trapped in the legation compound at Peking by Boxer insurgents in 1900. An eight-nation International Relief Force of European, American and Japanese troops maneuvered to the rescue. Since Kaiser Wilhelm II’s minister to China, Baron Clemens von Ketteler, was murdered by the Boxers, the Germans "claimed a certain priority in the crusade against Chinese barbarism. The now semi-retired, sixty-eight year old, but for the occasion newly promoted Field Marshal Alfred Count von Waldersee, was proposed by the Tsar of Russia, and seconded by the Japanese, as the first Allied Supreme Commander of modern times.
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At the end of the campaign he hastened his return to Germany. - And this is where the "nice story" of Sai Jinhua 賽金花 Sai (Goldflower) comes in.
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Sai Jinhua, a famous courtesan in the late Qing Dynasty, is a legendary but very controversial figure. Her surname is zhao and her maiden name cai yun . She was born in 1864 in Suzhou. Later on due to understandable reasons she turned younger sometimes stating her year of birth to be 1871 or 1874. Sai Jinhua as a minor was sold into prostitution by her father, and changed her name into Fu Cai Yun. In 1886 she attracted Hong Jun, who bought her out of prostitution and made her his concubine and second wife being called Meng Luan (Dream-Phoenix) Upon Hong Jun being promoted to Ambassador she accompanied him to Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungaria and Holland. Since Hong Jun's first wife did not follow, Sai Jinhua was introduced as ambassador Huang Jun's wife to European courts. From December 1887 till April 1891 she mostly resided in Berlin -were during official receptions and meetings she was also introduced to Graf Waldersee.

Back in Beijing in 1893 her Husband Hung Jun passed away and due to not wanting to adhere to Confucian customs regarding widows, she decided to leave her husbands family and headed for Shanghai were under the name of Cao Meng Luan (Dream-orchid-dream Phoenix) she opened up a Brothel in the international settlement. By 1898 she had moved to Tianjin (a booming city with an international settlement) and named herself Sai Jin Hua. In May 1900 the Boxer unrest drove Sai Jinhua from Tianjin to Beijing
Story has it that whilst soldiers of the eight nations were looting and raping through the city she explained herself to a German officer as being the wife of former Ambassador Hung Jun to Germany and that she personally knows Graf Waldersee.

The German officer accompanied her to Graf Waldersee who recognized her as the wife of Hung Jun. After that the two of them got into a "relationship" and Sai Jin Hua took influence onto Graf Waldersee. During an outbreak of a fire at the Beijing Palace it was rumoured that both came running out of the Palace being naked.
Indeed historically Graf Waldersee abruptly ordered looting' by the eight nations and manners unbecoming of a German soldier to be stopped immediately.
The national German biographic Lexicon 1901 states - Sai Jin Hua had contact to German officers but undoubtedly not to Graf Waldersee.
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Lothar von Trotha a highly unpopular officer amongst the German East Asia Brigade Staff
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By 1904 Lothar von Trotha has reached a notorious fame and reputation in GSWA during the Herero War
Hong Kong historians report in 1998:
In May 1900 the Boxer unrest drove Sai Jinhua from Tianjin to Beijing where, thanks to her fluency in German, she is said to have exerted some positive influence on Count von Waldersee (1832–1904), commander-in-chief of the allied forces that relieved Beijing in July. She was instrumen-tal the following year in resolving the ongoing conflict between the allied forces and the Qing court by persuading the wife of Baron von Ketteler, who had been killed by the Boxers, to request the Qing court to erect a monument in her husband’s memory at the scene of his murder.
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Ketteler Memorial Gate
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During the Culture revolution
The Qing government agreed to this and she was thus able to return to Beijing. These two years were the high point of Sai Jinhua’s career.
Regardless of whether Sai Jinhua’s role in China’s foreign relations may have been exaggerated and despite the controversies surrounding her con-duct and affairs, she lived a tough and spectacular life that has assured her a place in the modern history of China.

The influence onto Graf Waldersee and especially the involvement and negotiations of Sai Jin Hua towards the widow of Baron von Ketteler is what made her become a Chinese heroin.
And here is were the problem lies - at the time were she supposedly negotiated with Maude von Ketteler in Beijing - von Ketteler was already back in her home in Detroit.
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Maude von Ketteler
Three month before Sai Jin Hua had that "brilliant" idea about erecting a memorial gate to von Ketteler - the German delegate Mumm von Schwarzenstein had included the following demand into the peace treaty script:
Érection sur la place de l'assassinat d'un monument commémoratif digne du rang du défunt portant une inscription en langue latine, allemande et chinoise qui exprime les regrets de l'Empereur Chinois à propos du meurtre commis

Rumours in Germany had it that the wife of Graf Waldersee had received "alarming" reports about her husbands social live and that she insisted towards her husband to return immediately - and indeed Graf Waldersee's departure was a hasty one :devious:

Regards
Andy
Man who goes to bed with itchy bum - wakes up with smelly finger - Confucius?

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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#22

Post by Kruska » Thu Oct 04, 2012 8:02 pm

Yuan Shikai (Yuan Shih-Kai). (1859-1916)

Yuan Shikai (Yuan Shih-kai) was one to the most significant Chinese political figures in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He was a high military official of the Qing (Ching) Dynasty who turned against it, succeeded Sun Yat-sen as the first president of the Chinese Republic and attempted to found a new imperial dynasty.

The below is an original photo
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Making a political alliance with the Empress Dowager, and becoming a lasting enemy of the Guangxu Emperor, Yuan left the capital in 1899 for his new appointment as Governor of Shandong. During his three-year tenure while the Boxer Rebellion erupted, he ensured the suppression of Boxers in the province, though his troops took no active part outside Shandong itself. Yuan took the side of the pro foreign faction in the Imperial Court, along with Prince Qing, Li Hongzhang and Ronglu, he refused to side with the Boxers and attack the Eight Nation Alliance forces, joining with other Chinese governors who commanded substantial modernized armies like Zhang Zhidong not participating in the Boxer Rebellion. He and Zhang ignored Empress Dowager Cixi's declaration of war against the foreign powers and continued to suppress the Boxers. He also founded a provincial junior college (Shandong College, the forerunner of Shandong University) in Jinan, which adopted western ideas of education.

In July 1901, Yuan was the commander of the largest, best trained Chinese military force in North China. In addition, foreigners perceived him as following a pro-Western policy. After the court returned to the capital and the death of his powerful Chinese patron, Li Hongzhang (Li Hung-chang), he was appointed governor-general of Zhili (Chihli) province and northern commissioner of military and foreign affairs.

Over the next eight years, he introduced military, educational, legal and industrial reforms in North China. His major focus was military reform. He was able to form a modern, well-equipped Northern Army staffed by his subordinates personally loyal to himself. As the dynasty tried to reform itself, Yuan was able to gather more power. He was known as a popular but strict commander. He showed a personal interest in the well-being of his troops, seeing they were paid regularly and promoted his protégés, ensuring their loyalty.

As a Chinese official in an increasingly Manchu-dominated administration, Yuan relied on the patronage of the empress dowager. After her death in 1908, his career went into a swift decline. Within three months of her death, Yuan was unceremoniously retired. The pretext was his incapacitation by a foot injury.

Although retired, Yuan kept in close contact with his protégés. When the Double Ten (October 10th) Revolution began in 1911, the dynasty summoned him back to duty. He was appointed to command an army to suppress the rebellion. However, Yuan was in no rush to rejoin and support those who had unceremoniously retired him. He declined to accept the appointment, saying his foot injury still troubled him.
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Austo-Hungarian architecture

He was finally persuaded to take up the command of the army in return for the office of prime minister. Yuan then entered into negotiations with the rebels and played the incompetent dynasts off against the politically naive revolutionaries. By March 1912, the Manchus abdicated and Yuan was named first president of the Chinese Republic.

Over the next two years, Yuan engaged in political intrigue against the republicans. He did not believe in the republican form of government and worked to subvert it. By May 1913, he had negotiated a loan with a five power bank consortium representing concerns in Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Japan. The agreement, signed without the approval of the National Assembly, gave him the wherewithal to move against his opponents.

After destroying their political and military authority, he moved to consolidate his power. He dissolved the National Assembly, replacing it with a political council composed of his own cronies. This body created a constitutional council to draft a new governing document. This new constitution granted unlimited powers to the president.

The outbreak of World War I presented him with new difficulties. Before, both he and his predecessors were able to balance the imperial powers against one another to ensure that no one power, especially Japan, dominated China. As Western interest shifted from East Asia, the Japanese were given a relatively free hand. As an ally of Great Britain, Japan seized the German territorial concessions in Shandong. In January 1915, the Japanese presented Yuan's government with their infamous Twenty One Demands. If they had all been granted, China would have been transformed into a Japanese protectorate. No foreign power intervened to stop Japan and Yuan was unwilling to commit his army to fight the Japanese. Therefore, he submitted to all but the most radical of them.

The submission may have been linked to Yuan's desire to found a new imperial dynasty. If his plan was to succeed, he needed Japanese indifference, if not cooperation. He received support from his Japanese and American advisers as well as his relatives and Chinese advisers. The monarchical movement began in August 1915. By December, Yuan was petitioned to ascend the throne and found a new dynasty. Orders were issued transforming China from a republic to a monarchy. Unfortunately, this move was met with hostility both inside and outside China. The Japanese were the first to register a protest and even former supporters turned against him. By March 1916, the monarchical experiment was over and Yuan restored a republican government.

Faced with defiance and revolt from his subordinates, Yuan's political power began to slip away. Through the spring, he tried to negotiate a settlement with the military commanders in the southwest. In June 1916, exhausted and ill, Yuan died of uremia.

Japanese and German sailors in Tientsin during the Boxerrevolution
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Regards
Andy
Man who goes to bed with itchy bum - wakes up with smelly finger - Confucius?

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Re: Boxer Rebellion - Boxeraufstand

#23

Post by Kruska » Fri Oct 05, 2012 6:30 pm

Beheading of a Chinese Boxer - background shows US troopers
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Regards
Andy
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