马林 - Maring ..or Henk Sneevliet

China /Machuria ,Japan,Dutch east indies (1935-1940)
Post Reply
User avatar
Heinrich
Generalleutnant
Generalleutnant
Posts: 13927
Joined: Tue Aug 03, 2010 5:22 pm
Location: Amsterdam

马林 - Maring ..or Henk Sneevliet

#1

Post by Heinrich » Sun Sep 19, 2010 5:09 am

A unknown famous Dutchman for many ..but one who left quite a footprint in Chinese and Indonesian history.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henk_Sneevliet

The wiki article just spents one line on his Chinese visit to Shanghai in 1920 :

' Lenin was impressed enough by him to send him as a Comintern representative to China, to help the formation of the Communist Party of China, and he was present at the First Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1921 when the Communist Party of China was formally established.'

sneevliet.jpg
sneevliet.jpg (36.71 KiB) Viewed 4495 times
sneevliet.jpg
sneevliet.jpg (36.71 KiB) Viewed 4495 times


Today not many Chinese will hear a bell ringing by hearing the name Sneevliet ..yet every 'red' book wil mention him as the founder of the Chinese communist party together with Mao under the pseudonym Maring ,sometimes also Maling . He suffered a lonely execution in German captivity on april 12 1942 in KZ Amersfoort Holland .
Today being remembered by a butt-ugly concrete viaduct over a butt ugly highway named after him in my hometown Amsterdam , totally lost in time ....


http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%A9%AC%E6%9E%97_(%E5%85%B1%E4%BA%A7%E5%9B%BD%E9%99%85)

马林 (共产国际)


维基百科,自由的百科全书
亨德利库斯·约瑟夫斯·弗朗西乌斯·玛丽·斯内夫利特(荷兰语:Hendricus Josephus Franciscus Marie Sneevliet)(1883年5月14日-1942年4月13日),笔名马林,荷兰共产主义者,印尼共产党和中国共产党创始人之一。

马林出生于荷兰鹿特丹,1900年进入荷兰铁路系统任工人,并加入荷兰社会民主党和铁路工会。1907年,马林成为荷兰社民党首位市议员。1911年,部分荷兰工会参加了国际海员罢工,但是荷兰社民党多数成员却反对。马林厌倦了两派的争吵,决定前往荷属东印度传播革命思想。

马林于1913年抵达荷属东印度,随即积极参加当地反抗荷兰殖民当局的活动。1914年,他参与创建了印尼社会民主联盟(印尼共产党前身之一)。马林在印尼领导积极的工人运动,这不但招致了荷兰殖民当局的反对,也不符合荷兰社会民主党多数成员的意见。马林于是在1916年退出荷兰社民党,转而加入荷兰共产党。

十月革命之后,荷兰殖民当局担心马林激进的思想和在当地居民中的声望会引起革命。于是强迫其于1918年离开印尼。回到荷兰后,马林继续致力于发动工人运动,与荷共领导发生分歧,逐渐被边缘化。

1920年,马林作为印尼共产党代表前往莫斯科出席共产国际第二次大会。在会上,列宁对马林留下了深刻印象,决定派遣其前往中国,帮助中国的共产主义者建立自己的政党。在中国期间,马林主持了中国共产党第一次全国代表大会及其后的一些会议。马林主张中国共产党同中国国民党积极合作,因此与中共领导人产生很大的矛盾。1924年,马林被召回,由维经斯基接替。

1927年,马林与荷兰共产党决裂,自组政党,并加入了托洛茨基组织的第四国际,期间一度被捕入狱。不久之后,马林及其政党又离开第四国际,转而同英国独立工党和西班牙马克思主义联合工人党结盟。

马林1933年在狱中当选为荷兰下议院成员,此后他一直利用此身份领导荷兰工人运动。1940年纳粹德国占领荷兰,马林随即解散自己的政党,转而组织抗击德国侵略的游击战,建立了马克思-列宁-卢森堡战线。

1942年,马林和马克思-列宁-卢森堡战线其他主要领导人一道被纳粹德国抓获,4月13日被枪决。据称,他们临刑前仍然全体高唱国际歌。
Regards :
Henk
Image


Image
Image

User avatar
Heinrich
Generalleutnant
Generalleutnant
Posts: 13927
Joined: Tue Aug 03, 2010 5:22 pm
Location: Amsterdam

Re: 马林 - Maring ..or Henk Sneevliet

#2

Post by Heinrich » Fri Jul 08, 2011 2:48 am

Added some manuscripts of maring as stored in the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam
Its written in english and added as a pdf you can download here:

sneevliet manuscripts.pdf
(5.51 MiB) Downloaded 167 times
sneevliet manuscripts.pdf
(5.51 MiB) Downloaded 167 times


sneevliet manuscript 2.pdf
(3.88 MiB) Downloaded 112 times
sneevliet manuscript 2.pdf
(3.88 MiB) Downloaded 112 times


Image


Sneevliet - a life in documents
Henk Sneevliet
Regards :
Henk
Image


Image
Image

User avatar
Heinrich
Generalleutnant
Generalleutnant
Posts: 13927
Joined: Tue Aug 03, 2010 5:22 pm
Location: Amsterdam

Re: 马林 - Maring ..or Henk Sneevliet

#3

Post by Heinrich » Fri Jul 08, 2011 2:59 am

Hendricus Josephus Franciscus Marie Sneevliet, known as Henk Sneevliet or the pseudonym Maring (May 13, 1883 - April 13, 1942), was a Dutch Communist, who was active in both the Netherlands and the Dutch East-Indies. He took part in the Communist resistance against the German occupation of the Netherlands during World War II and was executed by the Germans in 1942.

Early life
Sneevliet was born in Rotterdam and grew up in 's-Hertogenbosch. After finishing his education, he started working for the Dutch railways in 1900 and became a member of the Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij (SDAP, the predecessor of the Dutch Labour Party) as well as the railway union. From 1906, Sneevliet was active for the SDAP in Zwolle, where he became the first social democrat city council member in the elections of 1907.

Sneevliet was also active in the Dutch railway union, the NV and in 1911 he became its chairman. In the union, Sneevliet was one of the more radical voices. When an international sailor strike was called in 1911, several of the more radical Dutch unions took part, but the majority of the union movement, as well as the majority within the SDAP were against it. For Sneevliet, this led to his alienation from both and strengthened him in his decision to leave the Netherlands for the Dutch East Indies.


Dutch East Indies
Sneevliet lived in the Dutch East Indies (roughly equal to present day Indonesia) from 1913 until 1918 and he soon became active in the struggle against Dutch rule. In 1914, he was a co-founder of the Indies Social Democratic Association (ISDV), in which both Dutch and Indonesian people were active.

He also returned to union work, becoming a member of the Vereeniging van Spoor- en Tramwegpersoneel, a railway union which was unique in having both Dutch and Indonesian members. Thanks to his experience as a union leader, he soon managed to turn this still fairly moderate union into a more modern and aggressive union, with a majority of Indonesian members. This union would later form the base for the Indonesian communist movement.

ISDV was strictly anti-capitalist and agitated against both the Dutch colonial regime and the privileged Indonesian elites. This led to much resistance against the ISDV and Sneevliet himself, both from conservative circles as well as from the more moderate SDAP. In 1916 therefore he left the SDAP and joined the SDP, the predecessor of the Communist Party of Holland (CPH, later CPN).

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Sneevliet's radicalism gained enough support amongst both the Indonesian population as well as Dutch soldiers and especially sailors that the Dutch authorities got nervous. Sneevliet was therefore forced to leave the Dutch East Indies in 1918. ISDV was repressed by the Dutch colonial authorities.

Even after his return Sneevliet stayed interested in Indonesian developments and in 1933 he was condemned to five months imprisonment for his solidarity actions for the Dutch and Indonesian sailors who took part in the mutiny on "De Zeven Provinciën", which was put down by an air bombardment in which twenty-three sailors were killed and which at the time aroused considerable passions in the Dutch public opinion.


Working for the Comintern
Back in the Netherlands, Sneevliet was somewhat marginalised by the leadership of the CPH, who criticised his tactics in the Indies. He therefore spent more time in the union movement, where he helped organise the 1920 transport strike. The same year he was also present at the second congress of the Comintern in Moscow, as a representative of the Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI), which was the successor to Sneevliet's ISDV. Lenin was impressed enough by him to send him as a Comintern representative to China, to help the formation of Communist Party of China, and he was present at the First Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1921 when the Communist Party of China was formally established.

Sneevliet was not impressed by the party and argued for cooperation with the Kuomintang and Sun Yat-sen, with whom he had established contacts personally. However, this is a policy which seemed reasonable at the time but proved disastrously wrong within a few years, when Chiang Kai-shek succeeded as the head of nationalists after Sun Yat-sen's death (see Chinese Civil War). Things came to a head in 1924, largely due to the worsening political climate in the USSR.


Back in the Netherlands
In 1927, after years of worsening relations between Sneevliet and his followers and the CPH leadership, Sneevliet broke all ties with the CPH and the Comintern and formed his own party, the Revolutionair Socialistische Partij (RSP), this later became the Revolutionair Socialistische Arbeiders Partij (RSAP) after fusing with the Independent Socialist Party (OSP), which had earlier formed under the stewardship of Jacques de Kadt and Piet J. Schmidt. The RSP signed the Declaration of the Four[1] in August 1933 along with the International Communist League, led by Leon Trotsky, the OSP and the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany. This declaration was intended as a step towards a new International of revolutionary socialist parties. In the end the RSAP broke from the Trotskyists in 1937/38[2] and became a part of the International Bureau of Revolutionary Socialist Unity along with the Independent Labour Party (Britain) and the Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM) Spain.

In the 1930s, therefore, Sneevliet and his party concentrated more on national issues, gaining some successes in organising the unemployed movement, strike actions, and the struggle against the rise of fascism. In 1933 Sneevliet, while still imprisoned, was elected a member of the Tweede Kamer, or Lower House, a position he mainly used to propagandise. Central to the activity of the small party was its relationship with a small trade union federation, the NAS, and it was due to a dispute concerning this body that the RSAP split from Trotsky's ICL.

However, the worsening political climate both abroad and nationally and the constant struggle against both the Stalinist and Social Democrat parties, as well as government interference, took a heavy toll on Sneevliet and his group. When war broke out on May 10, 1940, Sneevliet immediately dissolved the RSAP.


Death
Some months later he founded a resistance group against the German occupation, together with Willem Dolleman and Ab Menist, the Marx-Lenin-Luxemburg-Front (MLL-Front).[2] This was largely engaged in producing propaganda for socialism and opposing the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands and as such was heavily involved with the February strike of 1941.

As a known Communist, Sneevliet had to go into hiding even before he started his resistance activities. For two years he managed to keep out of the hands of the Nazis, but in April 1942 they finally arrested both him and the rest of the MLL-Front leadership. Their execution took place in the Amersfoort KZ on April 12, 1942.[3] It was reported that they went to their deaths singing The Internationale.[2]



The architect of Chinese communism | Radio Netherlands Worldwide

Image
Regards :
Henk
Image


Image
Image

User avatar
Heinrich
Generalleutnant
Generalleutnant
Posts: 13927
Joined: Tue Aug 03, 2010 5:22 pm
Location: Amsterdam

Re: 马林 - Maring ..or Henk Sneevliet

#4

Post by Heinrich » Fri Jul 08, 2011 3:31 am

Image

Image

ma.jpg
ma.jpg (10.06 KiB) Viewed 4406 times
ma.jpg
ma.jpg (10.06 KiB) Viewed 4406 times


Image
with his dad in limburg ..

Image
In Indonesia with the ISDV
Image

Image

sneevliet-and-trotsky.jpg

Sneevliet and Trotski

Image
Betsy and Henk in 1909


Image
Henk , Mien and Pam

Image
Betsy ,Pim and Pam in Semarang Indonesia

Image
Henk Betsy pim and Pam in semarang indonesia

Image
Henk and Mien in Amsterdam

hs.jpg


Image
Sneevliet on a 100 yuan bill (artwork)


Berani karena benar – Dapper zijn omdat het goed is.
Image
Image
a monument for those executed together in '42 in Amersfoort far away from this cemetary ...
its the only 'real' monument hes mentioned on ,a mass grave where all 8 were reburied
(Westerveld cemetary Driehuis)
Regards :
Henk
Image


Image
Image

sasi123
Wildboar
Wildboar
Posts: 1
Joined: Tue Nov 15, 2011 5:08 am

Re: 马林 - Maring ..or Henk Sneevliet

#5

Post by sasi123 » Tue Nov 15, 2011 5:12 am

I have enjoyed reading your articles. It is well written. It looks like you spend a large amount of time and effort in writing the post. I am appreciating your effort. . :toast: :hungry: :knock: :rofl: :whiteflag: :ko:

http://histomil.com

Post Reply
  • Similar Topics
    Replies
    Views
    Last post

Return to “30ies Asia general topics”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest